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Covid in Scotland: The latest cases

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The number of Covid-19 infections in Scotland has risen, according to the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

The ONS Covid infection survey estimates an average of 219,600 people were infected on any given day in the week up to 31 December - that's about one in 25 people.

Figures from the National Records of Scotland also show there were 81 Covid deaths in the week ending 8 January, which is higher than the previous week.

A total of 16,465 people in Scotland have died with Covid since the outbreak began in March 2020.

This page analyses the key figures for the Covid pandemic in Scotland and is updated weekly.

The ONS has been carrying out a Covid infection survey of randomly selected households in Scotland since September 2020.

Now mass testing has ended, it has become the best estimate of the extent of the coronavirus outbreak in Scotland.

The pandemic has created a huge load on Scotland's hospitals.

At the peak of the outbreak in spring 2020, there were more than 1,500 Covid patients in hospital, with more than 200 being treated in intensive care.

Numbers reduced over the summer of 2020, but started to rise steadily again in the autumn. In January 2021, the number of patients with Covid in hospital went above 2,000.

During the Omicron surge in cases in early 2022, the total number of patients with Covid surpassed the 2021 peak. However, the numbers being treated in intensive care are lower than they were early in the pandemic.

The first Covid-19 death in Scotland was reported by NHS Lothian on 13 March 2020.

The spring outbreak peaked in mid-April 2020 and then mainly declined until the summer, when deaths remained at a relatively low level.

The rate of new deaths rose again in the autumn of 2020 as the second wave of the pandemic took hold, finally peaking at the end of January 2021.

The number of deaths in subsequent waves of Covid infections peaked at much lower levels, but deaths are still occurring.

There are two ways to count total deaths from Covid-19.The National Records of Scotland (NRS) reports all death certificates that mention Covid-19, even if the person has not been tested for the virus.

The NRS also publishes data on excess deaths, compared with a five-year average.

Excess deaths from most causes rose in 2020 and in 2021.

The exception in both years has been deaths from respiratory diseases, which have seen lower than average excess deaths.

The first Covid-19 vaccinations in Scotland were administered on 8 December 2020.Covid in Scotland: The latest cases

The vaccines all require two doses, with some groups of people also eligible for winter boosters.

The latest data on vaccinations is not available. The following graph shows figures for 4 Nov.